The means by which a representative obtains his or her standing, status, position or office. My library Help Advanced Book Search. For instance, it is unclear how the standards that Mansbridge identifies in the four different forms of representation should relate to each other. Urbinati emphasizes the importance of the former for motivating representatives to deliberate with each other and their constituents.
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Two Faces of Representation: The fluid relationship between the career paths of formal and informal representatives also suggests that contemporary realities do not justify focusing mainly on formal representatives.
hanma Hanna Pitkin, The Concept of Representation. The ability of constituents to punish their representative for failing to act in accordance with their wishes e.
Hanna Pitkin, The Concept of Representation - Oxford Handbooks
Andrew Rehfeld has offered a general theory of representation which simply identifies representation by reference to a relevant audience accepting a person as its representative. However, it is unclear how to counteract the class bias that pervades domestic and international representative institutions.
Gutmann, Amy and Dennis Thompson, What they do and how they do it depends upon how they see themselves and their world, and this in turn depends upon the concepts through which they see.
Given these changes, it is necessary to revisit our conceptual understanding of political representation, specifically of democratic representation.
All four forms of representation, then, are ways that democratic citizens can be legitimately represented within a democratic regime.
No standards for assessing how well a representative behaves. The Concept of Representation Hanna F. Objective interests are the key for determining whether the autonomy of representative and the autonomy of the represented have been breached. However, with the growing number of democratic states, we are likely to witness more variation among the different forms of political representation.
Shapiro, Ian, Susan C. Contesting the Boundaries of the PoliticalSeyla Benhabib ed.
Historically, the theoretical literature on political representation has focused on whether representatives should act as delegates or as trustees.
In particular, it avoids a common mistake made by many contemporary deliberative democrats: In particular, her agonistic conception of representation highlights the importance of disagreements and rhetoric to the procedures, practices, and ethos of democracy. Sign in to annotate.
The Concept of Representation - Hanna F. Pitkin - Google Books
Symbolic Representation Representing ppitkin "Acting For": In other words, Rehfeld argues that constituencies, e. Assess the representative by the accuracy of the resemblance between the representative and the represented.
This seemingly straightforward definition, however, is not adequate as it stands. Politics Urban Studies U. Rowman and Littlefield, Ch.
What is certain is that democratic citizens are likely to disagree about what constitutes democratic representation. For a brief description of ganna of these views, see chart below. The Concept of Constituency: